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Wetenschappelijke publicaties

Chemurot M., Brunain M., Akol A.M., Descamps T., de Graaf D.C. (2016) First detection of Paenibacillus larvae causative agent for American foulbrood in a Ugandan honeybee colony.  SpringerPlu5:1090

Descamps T., De Smet L., Stragier P., De Vos P., de Graaf D.C. (2016) Multiple Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis: A molecular genotyping tool for Paenibacillus larvae.  Microbial Biotechnology DOI: 10.1111/1751-7915.12375

De Smet L., Ravoet J., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2016) Expression of the key components of the RNAi machinery is suppressed in honey bees that suffer a high virus infection.  Entomological Science  (Accepted)

Roelandt S., Méroc E., Riocreux F., de Graaf D.C., Nguyen K.B., Brunain M., Verhoeven B, Dispas M., Roels S., Van der Stede Y. (2016) Belgian honey bee winter mortality during 2012-2013: a case-control study and spatial analysis.  Journal of Apicultural Research  55 (1): 19-28

Chemurot M., Akol A.M., Masembe C., De Smet L., Descamps T., de Graaf D.C. (2016) Factors influencing the prevalence and infestation level of Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies in two highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda.  Experimental and Applied Acarology  68(4): 497-508

Parmentier L., Meeus I., Mosallanejad H., de Graaf D.C., Smagghe G. (2016) Plasticity in the gut microbial community and uptake of Enterobacteriaceae (Gammaproteobacteria) in Bombus terrestris bumblebees’ nests when reared indoors and moved to an outdoor environment.  Apidologie  47: 237-250

Parmentier L., Smagghe I., de Graaf D.C., Meeus I. (2016) Varroa destructor Macula-like virus, Lake Sinai virus and other new RNA viruses in wild bumblebee hosts (Bombus pascuorum, Bombus lapidarius and Bombus pratorum). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology  134: 6-11

Van Geystelen A., Benaets K., de Graaf D.C., Larmuseau M., Wenseleers T. (2016) Track-a-Forager: a program for the automated analysis of RFID tracking data to reconstruct foraging behaviour.  Insectes Sociaux 63 (1): 175-183

Amakpe F., De Smet L., Brunain M., Ravoet J., Jacobs F.J., Reybroeck W., Sinsin B., de Graaf D.C. (2016) Discovery of Lake Sinai Virus and an unusual strain of acute bee paralysis virus in West African apiaries.  Apidologie 47: 35-47

Danneels E.L., Van Vaerenbergh M., Debyser G., Devreese B., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach. Toxins 7 (11): 4468-4483

Ravoet J., Schwarz R.S., Descamps T., Yanez O., Tozkar C.O., Martin-Hernandez R., Bartolomé C., De Smet L., Higes M., Wenseleers T., Schmid-Hempel R., Neumann P., Kadowaki T., Evans J.D., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Differential diagnosis of the honeybee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passimJournal of Invertebrate Pathology  130: 21-27

Schwarz R.S., Bauchan G.R., Murphy C.A., Ravoet J., de Graaf D.C., Evans J.D. (2015) Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 62: 567-583    

Van Vaerenbergh M, Debyser G., Smagghe G., Devreese B., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Unraveling the venom proteome of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) by integrating a combinatorial peptide ligand library approach with FT-ICR MS. Toxicon  102: 81-88

Gamboa V., Ravoet J., Brunain M., Smagghe G., Meeus I., Figueroa J., Riano D., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Bee pathogens found in Bombus atratus from Colombia: a case study.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology  129: 36-39

Danneels E.L., Formesyn E.M., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Exploring the potential of venom from Nasonia vitripennis as therapeutic agent with high-throughput screening tools.  Toxins  7: 2051-2070

Ravoet J. Reybroeck W., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.  Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology  94 (5): 543-548            

Sadd B.M., Barribeau S.M., Bloch G., Bourke A.F.G., Collins D., de Graaf D.C., Dearden P., Elsik C.G., Gadau J., Grimmelikhuijzen C.J.P., Hasselmann M., Lozier J.D., Robertson H.M., Smagghe G., Stolle E., Van Vaerenbergh M., Waterhouse R.M., and further 64 members of the International Bumblebee Genomics Consortium (2015) The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization.  Genome Biology  16: 76  

Ravoet J., De Smet L., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Genome sequence heterogeneity of Lake Sinai Virus found in honey bees and Orf1/RdRP-based polymorphism in a single host.  Virus Research  201: 67-72

Ravoet J., De Smet L., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2015) Vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a Belgian queen breeding program.  BMC Veterinary Research  11: 61       

Van Vaerenbergh M., De Smet L., Rafei-Shamsabadi D., Blank S., Spillner E., Ebo D., Devreese B., Jakob T., de Graaf D.C. (2015) IgE recognition of chimeric isoforms of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergen Api m 10 evaluated by protein array technology. Molecular Immunology  63: 449-455

Ravoet J., De Smet L., Meeus I., Smagghe G., Wenseleers T., de Graaf D.C. (2014) Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology  122: 55-5

Meeus I., de Miranda J.R., de Graaf D.C., Wäckers F., Smagghe G. (2014) Effect of oral infection with Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) reproductive success. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology  121: 64-69

Meeus I., Mosallanejad H., Niu J., de Graaf D.C., Wäckers F., Smagghe G. (2014) Gamma irradiation of pollen and eradication of Israeli acute paralysis virus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology  121: 74-77

Danneels E.L., Gerlo S., Heyninck K., Van Craenenbroeck K., De Bosscher K., Haegeman G., de Graaf D.C. (2014) How the venom from the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on mammalian cell lines.  PLoS ONE  9 (5): e96825. 

Van Vaerenbergh M., Debyser G., Devreese B., de Graaf D.C. (2014) Exploring the hidden honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom proteome by integrating a combinatorial peptide ligand library approach with FTMS. Journal of Proteomics 99: 169-178               

Ebo D.G., Van Vaerenbergh M., de Graaf D.C., Bridts C.H., De Clerck L.S., Sabato V. (2014) In vitro diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy and further development of component resolved diagnostics.  Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 10 (3): 375-384

De Smet L., De Koker D., Hawley A.K., Foster L.J., De Vos P., de Graaf D.C. (2014) Effect of bodily fluids from honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae on growth and genome-wide transcriptional response of the causal agent of American foulbrood disease (Paenibacillus larvae).  PLoS ONE  9 (2): e89175.

Formesyn E.M., Cardoen D., Ernst U.R., Danneels E.L., Van Vaerenbergh M., De Koker D., Verleyen P., Wenseleers T., Schoofs L., de Graaf D.C. (2014) Reproduction of honeybee workers is regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. General and Comparative Endocrinology 197: 1-4

Elsik C.G, Worley K.C., Bennett A.K., Beye M., Camara F.C., Childers C.P., de Graaf D.C., Debyser G., Deng J., Devreese B., Elhaik E., Evans J.D., Foster L.J., Graur D., Guigo R., Hoff K.J., Holder M.E., Hudson M.E., Hunt G.J., Jiang H., Joshi V., Khetani R.S., Kosarev P., Kovar C.L., Ma J., Maleszka R., Moritz R.F.A., Munoz-Torres M.C., Murphy T.D., Muzny D.M., Newsham I.F., Reese J.T., Robertson H.M., Robinson G.E., Rueppell O., Solovyev V., Stanke M., Stolle E., Tsuruda J.M., Van Vaerenbergh M., Waterhouse R.M., Weaver D.B., Whitfield C.W., Wu Y., Zdobnov E.M., Zhang L., Zhu D., Gibbs R.A. (2014) Finding the missing honey bee genes: lessons learned from a genome upgrade.  BMC Genomics 15: 86

Zirbes L., Nguyen B.K., de Graaf D.C., De Meulenaer B., Reybroeck W., Haubruge E., Saegerman C. (2013) Hydroxymethylfurfural: a possible emergent cause of honey bee mortality?  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61: 11865-11870         

Maharramov J., Meeus I., Maebe K., Arbetman M., Morales C., Graystock P., Hughes W.O.H., Plischuk S., Lange C.E., de Graaf D.C., Zapata N., Javier Perez de la Rosa J., Murray T.E., Brown M.J.F., Smagghe G. (2013) Genetic variability of the neogregarine Apicystis bombi, an etiological agent of an emergent bumblebee disease. PLoS ONE 8 (12): e81475.

Danneels E.L., Formesyn E.M., Hahn D.A., Denlinger D.L., Cardoen D., Wenseleers T., Schoofs L., de Graaf D.C. (2013) Early changes in the pupal transcriptome of the flesh fly Sarcophagha crassipalpis to parasitization by the ectoparasitic wasp, Nasonia vitripennis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  43: 1189-1200

Ravoet J., Maharramov J., Meeus I., De Smet L., Wenseleers T., Smagghe G., de Graaf D.C. (2013) Comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium reveals Crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality. PLoS ONE 8 (8): e72443.

Formesyn E.M., Heyninck K., de Graaf D.C. (2013) The role of serine- and metalloproteases in Nasonia vitripennis venom in cell death related processes towards a Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cell line.  Journal of Insect Physiology 59 (8): 795-803.     

Van Vaerenbergh M.,  Cardoen D.,  Formesyn E.M., Brunain M., Van Driessche G., Blank S., Spillner E., Verleyen P., Wenseleers T., Schoofs L., Devreese B., de Graaf D.C. (2013) Extending the honeybee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5. Insect Molecular Biology 22 (2): 199-210

de Miranda J.R., Bailey L., Ball B.V., Blanchard P., Budge G., Chejanovsky N., Chen Y.-P., Gauthier L., Genersch E., de Graaf D.C., Ribière M., Ryabov E., De Smet L., van der Steen J.J.M. (2013) Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera.  In Dietemann V., Ellis J.D., Neumann P. (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4): 52.4.22

de Graaf D.C., Alippi A.M., Antúnez K., Aronstein K.A., Budge G., De Koker D., De Smet L., Dingman D.W., Evans J.D., Foster L.J., Fünfhaus A., Garcia-Gonzalez E., Gregorc A., Human H., Murray K.D., Nguyen B.K., Poppinga L., Spivak M., vanEngelsdorp D., Wilkins S., Genersch E. (2013) Standard methods for American foulbrood research.  In Dietemann V., Ellis J.D., Neumann P. (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): 51.1.11

De Smet L., Ravoet J., de Miranda J.R., Wenseleers T., Mueller M.Y., Moritz R.F.A, de Graaf D.C. (2012) BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses. PLoS ONE  7 (10): e47953.          

Cardoen D., Ernst U.R., Boerjan B., Bogaerts A., Formesyn E., de Graaf D.C., Wenseleers T., Schoofs L., Verleyen P. (2012) Worker honeybee sterility: a proteomic analyses of suppressed ovary activation. Journal of Proteome Research 11 (5): 2838-2850.           

Smits K., Govaere J., Peelman L.J., Goossens K., de Graaf D.C., Vercauteren D., Vandaele L., Hoogewijs M., Wydooghe E., Stout T., Van Soom A. (2012) Influence of the uterine environment on the development of in vitro-produced equine embryos. Reproduction 143: 173-181.

Cardoen D., Wenseleers T., Ernst U., Danneels E., Laget D., de Graaf D.C., Schoofs L., Verleyen P. (2011) Genome-wide analysis of alternative reproductive phenotypes in honeybee workers. Molecular Ecology 20 (19): 4070-4084.

Hatjina F., Tsoktouridis G., Bouga M., Charistos L., Evangelou V., Avtzis D., Meeus I., Brunain M., Smagghe G., de Graaf D.C. (2011) Polar tube protein gene diversity among Nosema ceranae strains derived from a Greek honey bee health study. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 108: 131-134.

Chan Q.W.T., Cornman R.S., Birol I., Liao N.Y., Chan S.K., Docking T.R.,  Jackman S.D., Taylor G.A., Jones S.J.M., de Graaf D.C., Evans J.D. and Foster L.J. (2011) Updated genome assembly and annotation of Paenibacillus larvae, the agent of American foulbrood disease of honey bees. BMC Genomics  12: 450       

Meeus I., Brown M., de Graaf D.C., Smagghe G. (2011) Effects of invasive parasites on bumble bee declines. Conservation Biology 25 (4): 662-671

Cardoen D., Ernst U.R., Van Vaerenbergh M., Boerjan B., de Graaf D.C., Wenseleers T., Schoofs L., Verleyen P. (2011) Differential proteomics in dequeened honeybee colonies reveals lower viral load in hemolymph of fertile worker bees. PLoS ONE 6 (6): e20043.

Wilmart O., Reybroeck W., De Meulenaer B., de Graaf D.C., Nguyen B.K., Huyghebaert A., Saegerman C. (2011) Analyse du risque pose en santé animal par la presence de l’hydroxymethylfurfural dans les sirops de nourrissement des abeilles domestiques. Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 155 (2): 53-60

Meeus I., Smagghe G., Siede R., Jans K., de Graaf D.C. (2010).  Multiplex RT-PCR with broad-range primers and an exogenous internal amplification control for the detection of honeybee viruses in bumblebees. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 105 (2): 200-203         

Meeus I., de Graaf D.C., Jans K., Smagghe G. (2010).  Multiplex PCR detection of slowly-evolving trypanosomatids and neogregarines in bumblebees using broad-range primers. Journal of Applied Microbiology 109 (1): 107-115        

Danneels E.L., Rivers D.B., de Graaf D.C. (2010).  Venom proteins of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis: Recent discovery of an untapped pharmacopee. Toxins 2: 494-516

de Graaf D.C., Brunain M., Scharlaken B., Peiren N., Devreese B., Ebo D.G., Stevens W.J., Desjardins C.A., Werren J.H. & Jacobs F.J. (2010).  Two novel proteins expressed by the venom glands of Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis share an ancient C1q-like domain.  Insect Molecular Biology 19 (Suppl. 1): 1-10

de Graaf D.C., Aerts M., Brunain M., Desjardins C.A., Jacobs F.J., Werren J.H. & Devreese B. (2010).   Insights into the venom composition of the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis from bioinformatic and proteomic studies.  Insect Molecular Biology 19 (Suppl. 1): 11-26.

The Nasonia Genome Working Group (2010).  Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species.  Science 327: 343-348

Nguyen B.K., Mignon J., Laget D., de Graaf D.C., Jacobs F.J., van Engelsdorp D., Brostaux Y., Saegerman C., Haubruge E. (2010).  Honey bee colony losses in Belgium during the 2008-9 winter. Journal of Apicultural Research 49 (4): 337-339

de Graaf D.C., Ritter W., Jacobs F.J., Brunain M., Imberechts H., Knapen K., Mintiens K., Van der Stede Y., Verheyden B., Aud Kari F., Boujon P., Chioveanu G., Coroian C., Formato G., Mutinelli F., Roest H.J., Titĕra D., Pernal S.F. & Knapen K. (2009). Lessons from the first international proficiency test for the detection of spores from the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvaeAccreditation and Quality Assurance 14(5): 273-276

de Graaf D.C., Aerts M., Danneels E. & Devreese B.  (2009) Bee, wasp and ant venomics pave the way for a component-resolved diagnosis of sting allergy.  Journal of Proteomics 72: 145-154

Peiren N., de Graaf D.C., Vanrobaeys F., Danneels E.L., Devreese B., Van Beeumen J. & Jacobs F.J. (2008).  Proteomic analysis of the honey bee worker venom gland focusing on the mechanisms of protection against tissue damage.  Toxicon 52: 72-83

Scharlaken B., de Graaf D.C., Goossens K., Brunain M., Peelman L.J. & Jacobs F.J. (2008).  Reference gene selection for insect expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR: The head of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, after a bacterial challenge. Journal of Insect Science 8: 33, available online:

de Graaf D.C., Brunain M., Imberechts H. & Jacobs F.J. (2008).  First molecular confirmation of deformed wing virus infections of honeybees from a Belgian apiary reveals the presence of black queen cell virus and Varroa destructor virus 1. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 78: 101-105

Scharlaken B., de Graaf D.C., Goossens K.,Peelman L.J. & Jacobs F.J. (2008).  Differential gene expression in the honey bee head after a bacterial challenge.  Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32 (8): 883-889       

de Graaf D.C., Brunain M. & Jacobs F.J. (2008).  Implementation of quality control en biosafety measurements in the diagnosis of honey bee diseases.  Journal of Apicultural Research and Bee World 47 (2): 151-153

Scharlaken B., de Graaf D.C., Memmi S., Devreese B., Van Beeumen J. & Jacobs F.J. (2007).  Differential protein expression in the honey bee head after a bacterial challenge.  Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 65: 223-237        

de Graaf D.C., Alippi A.M., Brown M., Evans J.D., Feldlaufer M., Gregorc A., Hornitzky M., Pernal S.F., Schuch D.M.T., Titera D., Tomkies V. & Ritter W. (2006).  Diagnosis of American foulbrood in honey bees: a synthesis and proposed analytical protocols.  Letters in Applied Microbiology 43: 583-590

The Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium (2006).  Insights into social insects from the genome of the honey bee Apis melliferaNature 443 (7114): 931-949               

Peiren N., de Graaf D.C., Evans J.D. & Jacobs F.J. (2006).  Genomic and transcriptional analysis of protein heterogeneity of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 6.  Insect Molecular Biology 15 (5): 577-581

Peiren N., de Graaf D.C., Brunain M., Bridts C.H.,  Ebo D.G., Stevens W.J. & Jacobs F.J. (2006).  Molecular cloning and expression of icarapin, a novel IgE-binding bee venom protein.  FEBS Letters 580: 4895-4899      

de Graaf D.C., De Vos P., Heyndrickx M., Van Trappen S., Peiren N. & Jacobs F.J. (2006).  Identification of Paenibacillus larvae to the subspecies level: An obstacle for AFB diagnosis.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91: 115-123

Peiren N., Vanrobaeys F., de Graaf D.C., Devreese B., Van Beeumen J. & Jacobs F.J. (2005). The protein composition of honeybee venom reconsidered by a proteomic approach.  Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Proteins and Proteomics 1752: 1-5